To count the number of countries where forced labor is legal, we have used different indicators. If state owned companies or the state itself is accused of practicing forced labor and ILO is refused the possibilities to investigate it, the country is considered as practising legal slavery, regardless of its official legislation.
It is a big difference between abolishing slavery in the law and doing so in practice. As with all laws, the enactment relies on law enforcement—that is, police intervention. Our counts of legal shifts in countries in different years should not be interpreted as expressing the extent to which slavery is practiced. Many countries are still not taking sufficient action to end the remaining slavery, as is the case in North Korea , Turkmenistan and Tajikistan.
The dates collected of slavery abolishments concern passed laws, constitutions or signatures of UN conventions for all states recognised by the UN , based on three UN treaties:. The dates when countries passed domestic laws and constitutions, explicitly banning slavery or forced labor, come from the Slavery in Domestic Legislation database, compiled by Jean Allain and Dr. Most historic dates of abolishment before are based on Wikipedia, see www.
In all governments have a legal document banning forced labor, but some of them seem to be practicing forced labor themselves. An organisation called www. There are, in addition, plenty of reports of forced labour in North Korean work camps. Therefore we decided to mark these countries as not having made slavery illegal yet, even if all of these countries have signed UN conventions and banned it by their constitution.
After gathering the earliest date of abolishment for all countries, we could count the number of countries that are yet to abolish slavery and forced labor for the years — The UN treaty collection is available at the UN treaties website.
For detailed documentation and data behind this graph, visit www. Not only has the amount of oil spilled been falling. The number of accidents dropped from an average of Estimates before come from hundreds of historical sources, primarily www. They have been compiled into one coherent trend line.
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In summary:. Our county estimates are based on these sources, and our global trend for child mortality rate is using the UN-IGME data for the period to All other years is a weighted mean of countries data. The proper way to calculate the global child mortality, would require estimating the total number of child births and child deaths each year. The reason to abolish death penalty is not only the terrible risk of wrongful execution. Death penalty breaches two essential human rights: the right to life and the right to live free from torture.
Both rights are protected under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in , and should be respected by all members states. Amnesty International keeps track of countries that have abolished the death penalty after ; see www. To qualify as a country, it requires that the use of death penalty is prohibited as punishment for all crimes. Abolishment prior to in this trend comes from Wikipedia, see www.
Tetraethyl lead began to be added in gasoline for increased vehicle performance and fuel economy in the s, see www. The first country to ban lead in gasoline was Japan in Since then countries have followed. The actual degree of child labor is uncertain, but the trend of decline is evident in all sources measured consistently over time. Data from ILO covers the years — It overlaps in time with ILO but reports data for a wider age-interval spanning the years 5—17 years. The age interval reported here is 10—14 years.
For , While the global decline of child labor is certain, the actual levels at all times are not. Since writing this book, new numbers supporting our general estimates have been published on OurWorldInData.
Annual deaths from natural disasters have decreased by 75 percent over the past years, according to the International Disaster Database; see EM-DAT. Since disasters vary from year to year, here we compare ten-year averages.
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In chapter four where we further discuss the decline, we also use year averages. The huge decline in disaster deaths would be even more striking if two other major global changes are taken into account. In — there were disaster deaths per million people. In — the number was Second, years ago the communication technologies for reporting disasters and their victims were very primitive, compared to the monitoring of today.
Many catastrophes must have gone unrecorded ur been underreported.
The number of warheads peaked in the mid s and has steadily decreased since. Roughly, 9, of these weapons are in military arsenals; the remaining weapons are retired and awaiting dismantlement. Approximately 4, are operationally available, and some 1, are on high alert and ready for use on short notice. By far, the largest concentrations of nuclear weapons reside in Russia and the United States, which possess 93 percent of the total global inventory.
Smallpox had been one of the major killers of humans. Vaccines were invented already in , but not until was the nasty viruses defeated thanks to massive global vaccination campaigns lead by the World Health Organization. The last known case was recorded in Somalia in Smallpox was the first and so far the only disease eradicated by global vaccination programs. The data was published in the paper Towards the endgame and beyond: complexities and challenges for the elimination of infectious diseases by Klepac, et al The UVB light is also harmful to plants and animals.
When scientists presented evidence of the gases causing the ozone hole, the world reacted fast. All countries agreed to stop using these gases, and ratified the Montreal Protocol in The unit ODP tonnes is not an actual weight measurement, but represent the destructive effects of a substance compared to a reference substance.
The Internet Movie Database IMBd is maintained by film enthusiasts across the world, and has a nearly complete coverage of all feature films, making 3. The trend after is based on the figure on page 30 in UNEP. Between and the trend comes from Abouchakra et al , which is based on UNEP data from february For categories of the IUCN protected areas, see www. For more about the data behind this graph, visit www. In New Zealand took the step, and then all other countries followed—Australia in , Azerbaijan in , Sweden in but women voted for the first time in and Syria in , to mention a few—except one.
Saudi Arabia started letting women vote in and since women are also allowed to drive cars. As of , The Vatican State is the only country left where voting requires male gender. Since then, music recording have increased both in terms of quality and quantity. The curve shows the number of songs on Spotify, based on the recording date as stated by the ISRC International Standard Recording Code which is a global identifier for sound recordings that let music artists track and charge based on how often their recordings are played in different channels.
Of course, not all music recordings are available through Spotify, but the shape of the curve shows the mind blowing increase in cultural expression and consumption. The final data-point in this curve, 2. The first peer-reviewed scientific journal was Philosophical Transactions published by the Royal Society in London. The first issue was published in March and during its first year in existence scientific articles were printed only counting articles that are more like modern day scientific articles, excluding book reviews and extracts from letters.
Today, each acre of cropland produces on average 3. Roser has adopted the definitions of the Polity IV dataset but give the numbers in terms of inhabitants, not number of countries. The Polity IV dataset puts countries on a democracy scale, and defines non-democratic regimes as autocracies e. China , closed anocracy e. Morocco , open anocracy e. Russia or colonial regimes.
In this graph, we only show democracies, hence disregarding all types of non-democratic regimes. Literacy is hard to define and measure. UNESCO collected data from national surveys and censuses, all using slightly different definitions and methods for measuring literacy.
The numbers between and are from van Zanden , who gathered the data from multiple sources, described in the chapter Education since by Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li see p.
The exact levels are even more uncertain than after We removed dips and peaks in the trend line from van Zanden as they might give an impression of non-existing accuracy. Visit Literacy rate—v1 for detailed documentation of the data sources behind this graph. This is not a global average for survival of all children with cancer.
The data is for children treated in the US, which is representative for the cancer treatment given to children on Level 4, in Europe, Japan and elsewhere.http://bdaille.com/components/477/310.php
The estimate is from NCI, see www. This trend is based on UNESCO , and shows the number of girls of official primary school age who are enrolled in primary or secondary school, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary school age girls. The age interval for primary education varies between countries, but it is often between 6 to 11 years of age. Girls of primary school age who are still in pre-primary education are excluded and considered out of school.
We have inverted the numbers to show children not out-of-school: the in-school rate. See also the note to Fact question 1: Girls in school.
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Despite the fact that the status of many of these species is not improving, we consider it a great improvement that they are at least monitored. Data after come from Red List. The estimates for the following years are handpicked from the following publications and pages: , and come from previous paper editions of the list: Page iv, Red List edition ; Page ix, Red List edition ; and page 4, Red List edition.
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It compiled data about 34 mammal species and was managed by The Species Survival Commission under Leofric Boyle, according to the about page at Red List. See also the note to Fact question Endangered species. See also the note to Fact question Electricity. Statistics showing the global increase of mobile penetration often uses data from ITU from the International Telecommunication Union , ITU, counting the number of subscriptions, not subscribers. In the world in there were 7. GSMA publishes estimates of the number of unique subscribers, and their data series start with the numbers.
Gapminder has extended the series, combining these two measures by calculating the rate of subscriptions per subscriber for the overlapping year , and then assume that the same rate is applicable from the beginning of the ITU subscription series in when ITU reports 23, subscriptions worldwide. These are combined in Gapminder. The first data point, zero internet users in , is based on the Internet System Consortium ISC , which count internet hosts historically. The first record is from August with hosting servers, why we assume that the year before, the number of users was practically zero.
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